We are no longer at a time when Western countries were convinced that they embodied the democratic model and exported their own political systems to new nations looking for help, as they believed they were doing the right thing.

Without denying the usefulness of empirical texts of positive law or historically dated documents, like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Institut pour la démocratie (Paris) bases its analyses on principles of political philosophy of universal scope, namely the unwritten law of democracy. The expression of “republican values” has now acquired a very precise meaning since the concept of democracy was defined rationally some thirty years ago, thanks to the work of the French academician Jean Baechler in particular. Above all, we now have a yardstick by which to measure the democratic character of a given state.

With this debate on the definition of democracy almost over, the debate on the choice of the institutions that are most conform to the model should be over pretty soon too. It is no longer a surprise that these institutions give better results than the others. But this is not all. Given that all countries face the same problems, the right solutions in terms of political rules of the game are also universal. Taking into account the latest advances in knowledge in this field can only favour the emergence in the long run of a peaceful planetary order, based on the recognition of fundamental principles of universal scope.